Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)


Mathematics and Statistics


Not specified


Upon coming across mathematical manipulatives generated and produced by Utah State University, as a math teacher, I conducted a classroom teaching experiment in three pre-algebra classes with students of various achievement levels. After teaching the entire year using no manipulatives in the classroom, I tested my students with a general, end-of-year, core criterion, or cumulative test. Their scores were noted. The students in the study group were then given opportunities to try several manipulatives offered on the "National Library of Virtual Manipulatives," both as a class, and alone, and then retested. The following paper gives the parameters of the study, the statistical data surrounding the scores, responses from the students participating in the experiment, and the information found concerning the data collected.