Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)


Kinesiology and Health Science

Committee Chair(s)

Dale R. Wagner


Dale R. Wagner


Brennan J. Thompson


Edward M. Heath


A-mode ultrasound is a relatively inexpensive and noninvasive way of measuring subcutaneous fat thickness and estimating body fat percentage (%BF). The BodyMetrix BX2000 A-mode ultrasound is programmed with nine different equations that can be used to estimate %BF. The purpose of this study was to compare the %BF estimation from all nine equations available for adult males in this ultrasound system to the %BF estimation from Bod Pod air displacement plethysmography. Ultrasound measures were taken at 10 body sites on 42 males of varying age (28.6 ± 11.9 y), height (182.4 ± 7.6 cm), weight (84.5 ± 16.9 kg), and body mass index (24.5 ± 4.6 kg/m2). The %BF from the nine ultrasound formulas were compared to the estimate from the Bod Pod with a repeated-measures ANOVA. Three of the nine equations -- the Jackson and Pollock 3 site (JP3), Jackson and Pollock 7 site (JP7), and the NHCA 4 site -- had acceptable correlation coefficients (> 0.80), low mean differences that were not significant (p > 0.05), and insignificant bias. None of the equations had errors < 3.5%BF, but all three of these formulas had standard error of estimate (SEE) and total error (TE) of about 4%BF. Based on these findings, the JP3, JP7, and NHCA 4-site formulas in the BX2000 A-mode ultrasound are recommended over the other formula options for estimating the %BF of men.