Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)


Health, Physical Education, and Recreation

Committee Chair(s)

Eadric Bressel


Dennis Dolny


Breanna Studenka


Background: Although balance exercises are often performed in shallow pools, the efficacy of this practice is not well understood. Purpose: To quantify the effect of water depth and jet intensity on measures of balance in older and younger adults. Subjects: Sixteen older (age = 62.8 °” 9.56 yrs) and fifteen younger (age = 22.5 °” 1.85 yrs) adults. Methods: Posturography data were collected as participants stood quietly for 90 seconds on land and at various water depths and jet intensities. Results: Main effects < 0.001) and pairwise comparisons revealed that all measurements increased with increasing water depth and jet intensity,with older adults increasing statistically less than younger adults at higher jet intensities. Conclusions: Water immersion to the xiphoid process and water jet intensities at or above 40% seem to be environmental conditions that produce the greatest postural sway.