Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Master of Education (MEd)


Communicative Disorders and Deaf Education

First Advisor

Lauri Nelson


Previous research has found that engagement is key for the success of early readers. There is not sufficient previous research to show how best to engage early readers, particularly with mobile technologies, and almost none on the engagement of those with hearing loss. Electronic and mobile devices have been used in previous research to increase the engagement and success of students. The Reading for All Learners beginning reading curricula iPad application was adapted to include child and adult narrators and multiple modes of access to sound. Recordings of 24 (12 typical and 12 with hearing loss) early readers, ages four to six years, were made with the children and a parent using the beginning reading app with an adult narrator and a child narrator, and reading a print book. Parents completed a post treatment questionnaire with socio-demographic information and opinions on their child’s interest in the different books. The videos were coded for engagement using a rubric the researchers created for this study. This paper describes research findings related to student engagement with the adaptions on the iPad and preferences for child or adult voices.

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