Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)




The city of Tientsin is situated in northern China at the junction of the Peiho (River) and the Yuho (the Grand Canal). Its latitude is approximately 39 degrees north with a longitude of about 117 degrees east. The unique thing about Tientsin in 1900 was that it was actually two totally separate cities. Tientsin City , or the Native City, was surrounded by a large wall built in 1405. The wall was about thirty feet thick and about twenty-five feet high. The sides of it were faced with brick work four to five feet thick and the center was filled with dirt . A brick parapet about five feet high capped the wall, and gates were situated in the center of each side. Over these gates and in the four corners were built two storied buildings which served as look-out stations and added a very ornamental effect. Buildings inside the Native City were very close together. The streets were narrow, and transit and public utilities were very poor. Outside the walls of the Native City were extensive suburbs in which a large part of the native population lived. Surrounding the suburbs of the Native City was a mud wall which had been construct ed in 1858 as a defense against foreigners.

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