Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)


Communicative Disorders and Deaf Education


Teresa Ukrainetz


Sandra Gillam


Kristen Rolf


Amy Peterson


Purpose: The purpose of the current study was twofold: (a) to determine the distal effects of Sketch and Speak intervention on the use of taught note-taking strategies on a distal standardized expository task for adolescents with LLD when compared to pre-treatment; and (b) to determine the effect of Sketch and Speak intervention on the quality of oral performance on that distal expository task for adolescents with LLD when compared to pre-treatment. Oral rehearsal was not a formal research question, but independent use of this taught strategy was also examined. Method: Planning notes and oral explanations were obtained as part of a larger study. In the larger project, four students in junior high with LLD learned two types of note-taking strategies along with oral sentence formulation and rehearsal strategies to compose oral reports from novel informational texts, and then present those oral reports without use of notes. Pre- and posttest sessions included the standardized expository task in the current investigation. The standardized task involved making planning notes on a formatted notesheet similar to the notesheet used in treatment, and then using those notes to explain a familiar sport/game. The planning notes were scored using the investigator-designed notes scoring measure that involved four components: quantity, open/close/topic, format, and simplicity. The oral explanations were transcribed and scored utilizing the standardized holistic trait measure called the Expository Scoring Scheme (ESS). The ESS involved ten components: eight matching the planning notes categories (e.g. object of the game, rules, duration), plus terminology and coherence. Both the notes and explanation measures were independently scored by two researchers blind to pre/post status. Point-to-point inter-rater agreements for notes and report components were found to be satisfactory. The notes and explanation data were descriptively examined to determine changes from pretest to posttest which could logically be caused by transfer of taught note-taking and oral practice strategies from the intervention. Results: One participant chose to use pictography notes in the transfer task at posttest. Three of the four participants demonstrated gains in simplicity of notes taken at posttest. None of the participants used the open/close/topic or bulleted note features. One participant implemented the taught note-taking strategy of pictography. No quantitative or descriptive gains were shown in the expository rubric scores for the oral explanations at posttest. Conclusion: Results of this study indicate that the taught note-taking strategy feature of simplicity emphasized in Sketch and Speak can transfer to a distal note-taking task involving familiar information. The pictography may also transfer. However, participation in Sketch and Speak does not appear to improve oral expository discourse as measured by the ESS while referring to planning notes. This study showed limited distal generalization of the taught strategies and raises questions about what tasks are suitable to show generalization of strategies involving learning, recalling, and using new information in expository discourse.

Included in

Education Commons