Factors Affecting Air Entrainment of Hydraulic Jumps within Closed Conduits
While there has been a great deal of research on air entrainment at hydraulic jumps within closed conduits, very little of the research has specifically addressed size and temperature scale effects. Influences from jump location and changing length characteristics on air entrainment have also received little attention from past research. To determine the significance of size-scale effects of air entrained by hydraulic jumps in closed conduits, air flow measurements were taken in four different-sized circular pipe models with similar Froude numbers. Each of the pipe models sloped downward and created identical flow conditions that differed only in size. Additionally, specific measurements were taken in one of the pipe models with various water temperatures to identify any effects from changing fluid properties. To determine the significance of the effects of changed length characteristics on air demand, air flow measurements were taken with hydraulic jumps at multiple locations within a circular pipe with two different air release configurations at the end of the pipe. Results showed that air demand was not affected by the size of the model. All together, the data from four different pipe models show that size-scale effects of air entrained into hydraulic jumps within closed conduits are negligible. However, it was determined that air entrainment was significantly affected by the water temperature. Water at higher temperatures entrained much less air than water at lower temperatures. Hydraulic jump location results showed that for both configurations the percentage of air entrainment significantly increased as the hydraulic jump occurred near the point of air release downstream. As the jump occurred nearer to the end of the pipe, its length characteristics were shortened and air demand increased. However, jump location was only a significant factor until the jump occurred some distance upstream where the length characteristics were not affected. Upstream of this location the air demand was dependent only on the Froude number immediately upstream of the jump.
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