Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Departmental Honors


Animal, Dairy, and Veterinary Sciences


For an undergraduate Honor's project, I worked under the direction of Dr. Jeffery Hall to determine the bioavailability and toxicity of iron from Milorganite® fertilizer, an aerobically processed organic fertilizer. The Milorganite® Company is a subsidiary of the Milwaukee Municipal Sewage District and produces a fertilizer of high iron content (approximately 5-7%). The high iron content has resulted in concern about the toxic potential, which until now was unknown. This thesis paper will explain iron chemistry, bioavailability, requirements, absorption, toxicity, and treatments, followed by a description of fertilizer types and contents. This will be followed by a description and reasoning for the dosing study and the results from our clinical and histological observations, serum biochemistry, and tissue mineral analysis. Finally, there will be a short summary and the conclusions we reached at the end of the study.



Faculty Mentor

Jeffery Hall

Departmental Honors Advisor

Stanley Allen