Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Departmental Honors


Nutrition, Dietetics, and Food Sciences


Syndrome X is a cluster of abnormalities including insulin resistance, hypertension, dyslipidemia, upper-body obesity, increased levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1, decreased levels of tissue plasminogen activator, and hyperuricemia. The combined effect of these abnormalities greatly increases risk for Type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease. Individuals at risk for Syndrome X are those with any of the abnormalities (not necessarily all) or with a family history of diabetes, hypertension, or early-onset coronary artery disease. Treatment of Syndrome X should be early and aggressive, starting with lifestyle changes. Exercise, proper diet, and weight loss all improve insulin resistance and thereby decrease health risks. Pharmacological treatment for obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and diabetes may become necessary. Clinicians should focus on prevention of the disease through advocating an appropriate diet and exercise plan to maintain or obtain ideal body weight and keep lipids, blood pressure, and glucose at normal levels.



Faculty Mentor

Noreen B. Schvaneveldt

Departmental Honors Advisor

Janet B. Anderson