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Descriptive Personal Information Management (PIM) studies inform us about PIM behavior and their findings should guide the design and development of PIM tools to support the behavior under study. Unfortunately, descriptive studies do not always provide useful recommendations and PIM tool research is often carried out separately. The Holistic Cognitive Framework developed by Ingwersen and Järvelin (2005, Figure 6.1, p. 261) might serve as a unifying framework for PIM research



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