Document Type


Journal/Book Title/Conference

Educational Technology Research and Development






Michael J. Hannafin; J. M. Spector



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This paper describes an iteration of a design-based research project that involved integrating commercial physical activity data (PAD) sensors, such as heart rate monitors and pedometers, as technologies that could be used in two fifth-grade classrooms. Design-based research involves the development, implementation and study of new learning interventions in real-world contexts with the goal of elaborating principles or guidelines relevant to the design of new technologies and learning experiences. The current project involved the implementation of PAD technology-supported learning activities in two fifth-grade classrooms where students pursued investigations related to the distances that they walk, the relationship between heights and footsteps taken, and variations in heart rates among twins and with adults. In addition to describing some of the practical lessons learned related to the use of PAD technologies with elementary school children, we describe our initial efforts to assess students’ knowledge before and after the learning intervention. Results from the written assessments indicated that the newly designed activities indeed covered the intended content related to measures of center and averages. Results from the interviews suggested that students who participated in the unit designed to incorporate PAD technologies more reliably accessed knowledge related to measures of center and averages in scenario based problems than their counterparts who followed a traditional unit.



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