Instructional implications of cognitive task analysisas a method for improving the accuracy of experts’ self-report

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Avoiding simplicity,confronting complexity: Advances in studying and designing powerful (computer-based)learning environments [European Association for Research on Learning and InstructionSIG Instructional Design and SIG Learning and Instruction with Computers conference]

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Instruction can be characterized as an activity in which subject matter experts attempt to impart their skills and knowledge to novices. Yet a number of studies have challenged the accuracy of experts' self-reports and, by extension, the accuracy of instruction based primarily on self-report protocols (e.g., Allen & Casbergue, 1997; Baird, 2001; Berry, 1987; Chao & Salvendy, 1994; Crandall & Getchell-Reiter, 1993; Johnson, 1983; Rikers, Schmidt, & Boshuizen, 2000; Schaafstal, Schraagen, & van Berlo, 2000). This has led to claims that inaccurate information provided during teaching and modeling may lead to misconceptions, faulty problem solving strategies, and other types of errors by students (Lohman, 1986; Nisbett & Wilson, 1977; Schwartz & Bransford, 1998; Wilson & Dunn, 2004).

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