Document Type


Journal/Book Title/Conference

British Journal of Educational Technology

Author ORCID Identifier

LuEttaMae Lawrence

Vanessa Echeverria


Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Publication Date


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Last Page


Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.


Artificial intelligence (AI) can enhance teachers' capabilities by sharing control over different parts of learning activities. This is especially true for complex learning activities, such as dynamic learning transitions where students move between individual and collaborative learning in un-planned ways, as the need arises. Yet, few initiatives have emerged considering how shared responsibility between teachers and AI can support learning and how teachers' voices might be included to inform design decisions. The goal of our article is twofold. First, we describe a secondary analysis of our co-design process comprising six design methods to understand how teachers conceptualise sharing control with an AI co-orchestration tool, called Pair-Up. We worked with 76 middle school math teachers, each taking part in one to three methods, to create a co-orchestration tool that supports dynamic combinations of individual and collaborative learning using two AI-based tutoring systems. We leveraged qualitative content analysis to examine teachers' views about sharing control with Pair-Up, and we describe high-level insights about the human-AI interaction, including control, trust, responsibility, efficiency, and accuracy. Secondly, we use our results as an example showcasing how human-centred learning analytics can be applied to the design of human-AI technologies and share reflections for human-AI technology designers regarding the methods that might be fruitful to elicit teacher feedback and ideas. Our findings illustrate the design of a novel co-orchestration tool to facilitate the transitions between individual and collaborative learning and highlight considerations and reflections for designers of similar systems.



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