The Effect of Patriotic Messages on Restaurant Tipping

Document Type

Conference Paper

Journal/Book Title/Conference

Applied Communication Division at the annual meeting of the National Communication Association


National Communication Association

Publication Date



This study compared the effectiveness of 2 types of patriotic messages with a warmth/ ingratiation message and a control condition on restaurant tipping. Two female food servers waited on 100 parties eating dinner. When diners were finished with their meals, servers left them 1 of 4 messages on their checks: “Have a Nice Day,”“God Bless America,”“United We Stand,” or no message. Results indicated that parties who received the “United We Stand” message left significantly higher tips than did those receiving no message or the “Have a Nice Day” message. No other significant differences were found. These results and their implications are discussed.

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