Two Activities for Raising Consciousness of Language Learners' Strategies

Document Type


Journal/Book Title/Conference

The Internet TESL Journal

Publication Date



Systematic inquiry into the learning strategies employed by second language learners captured the attention of researchers following the publication of observations by both Rubin (1975) and Stern (1975). Their articles and other follow-up efforts (e.g., Naiman et al. 1978; Rubin, 1981) suggested that more effective language learners might differ from less effective learners primarily in terms of the respective ways that they approach learning. Effective learners, for example, engage in a variety of activities that help them better learn, retain, and use what they have learned. This insight subsequently spawned a wealth of research on the role of strategies in second language learning.