American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics
Based on a more direct analogy between turbulent and molecular transport, a foundation is presented for an energy–vorticity turbulence model. Whereas traditional k-εk-ε, k-ωk-ω, and k-ζk-ζ models relate the eddy viscosity to a dissipation length scale associated with the smaller eddies having the highest strain rates, the proposed model relates the eddy viscosity to a mean vortex wavelength associated with the larger eddies primarily responsible for turbulent transport. A rigorous development of the turbulent-energy-transport equation from the Navier–Stokes equations includes exact relations for the viscous dissipation and molecular transport of turbulent kinetic energy. Application of Boussinesq’s analogy between turbulent and molecular transport leads to a transport equation, which shows neither molecular nor turbulent transport of turbulent energy to be simple gradient diffusion. The new turbulent-energy-transport equation contains two closure coefficients: a viscous-dissipation coefficient and a turbulent-transport coefficient. To help evaluate closure coefficients and provide insight into the energy–vorticity turbulence variables, fully rough pipe flow is considered. For this fully developed flow, excellent agreement with experimental data for velocity profiles and friction factors is attained over a wide range of closure coefficients, provided that a given relation between the coefficients is maintained.
Phillips, W. F., Fowler, E.B., Hunsaker, D. F., “Energy-Vorticity Turbulence Model with Application to Flow near Rough Surfaces,” AIAA Journal, Vol. 51, No. 5, pp. 1211 – 1220, May 2013.