Document Type

Conference Paper

Journal/Book Title/Conference

48th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting


Orlando, FL


American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics

Publication Date



It is shown that the smooth-wall boundary conditions specified for commonly used dissipation-based turbulence models are mathematically incorrect. It is demonstrated that when these traditional wall boundary conditions are used, the resulting formulations allow an infinite number of solutions. Furthermore, these solutions do not enforce energy conservation and they do not properly enforce the no-slip condition at a smooth surface. This is true for all dissipation-based turbulence models, including the k-ε, k-ω, and k-ζ models. Physically correct wall boundary conditions must force both k and its gradient to zero at a smooth wall. Enforcing these two boundary conditions on k is sufficient to determine a unique solution to the coupled system of differential transport equations. There is no need to impose any wall boundary condition on ε, ω, or ζ at a smooth surface and it is incorrect to do so. The behavior of ε, ω, or ζ approaching a smooth surface is that required to force both k and its gradient to zero at the wall.