# Integrating Ordinary Differential Equations with Symmetry Revisited

## Document Type

Article

## Journal/Book Title/Conference

Foundations of Computational Math

## Volume

7

## Issue

4

## Publication Date

2007

## First Page

417

## Last Page

454

## Abstract

The process of integrating an nth-order scalar ordinary differential equation with symmetry is revisited in terms of Pfaffian systems. This formulation immediately provides a completely algebraic method to determine the initial conditions and the corresponding solutions which are invariant under a one parameter subgroup of a symmetry group. To determine the noninvariant solutions the problem splits into three cases. If the dimension of the symmetry groups is less than the order of the equation, then there exists an open dense set of initial conditions whose corresponding solutions can be found by integrating a quotient Pfaffian system on a quotient space, and integrating an equation of fundamental Lie type associated with the symmetry group. If the dimension of the symmetry group is equal to the order of the equation, then there exists an open dense set of initial conditions whose corresponding solutions are obtained either by solving an equation of fundamental Lie type associated with the symmetry group, or the solutions are invariant under a one-parameter subgroup. If the dimension of the symmetry group is greater than the order of the equation, then there exists an open dense set of initial conditions where the solutions can either be determined by solving an equation of fundamental Lie type for a solvable Lie group, or are invariant. In each case the initial conditions, the quotient Pfaffian system, and the equation of Lie type are all determined algebraically. Examples of scalar ordinary differential equations and a Pfaffian system are given.

## Recommended Citation

Integrating ordinary deferential equations with symmetry revisited, M.E. Fels, Foundations of Computational Math, 7(4), 2007, 417-454.