In synthetic urine (SU), addition of oxalate tends to form monohydrates of calcium oxalate. However, addition of oxalate to natural urine preferably forms calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD). Urine apparently contains a determinant for COD formation. To identify the determinant, the effects of pH, temperature, oxalate, calcium, urate, citrate, magnesium, sulfate and chondroitin sulfates (CS) on calcium oxalate crystal formation were studied. Lower temperatures, higher oxalate concentrations and higher pH favored COD formation in a SU. Mixed CS in the presence of citrate were the most decisive determinant of COD formation. Substitution of CS for agar and gelatin produced similar results, indicating that the colloidal effect of the macromolecules deter-mines COD formation. Identification of the determinants led to a simple, reproducible method of COD formation in SU without natural urine. Addition of strontium to SU resulted in dodecahedral bipyramids. Inter-penetration twinning of bi pyramids occur within seconds of the crystal formation.
Kim, Kookmin M.
"Determinants of Weddellite Formation: Chondroitin Sulfates and Citrate Determine Weddellite Formation In Vitro,"
Scanning Microscopy: Vol. 10
, Article 13.
Available at: https://digitalcommons.usu.edu/microscopy/vol10/iss2/13