The periodontal vessels in adult rats show a ladder-like pattern; in guinea pigs molars, by contrast, they present a honey-comb pattern. The vascular architecture in human teeth seems to be similar to that of rabbits. In guinea pigs, rats, rabbits and humans esophagus circumferential vessels give off perforating vessels. In human esophagus the number and diameter of the vessels in the submucous venous plexus decrease from proximal to distal. In the stomach the subepithelial capillary network shows a honey-comb pattern reflecting the arrangement of the gastric pits. A local portal system between the gastric glands and the surface mucosal cells for the transport of HCO3- ions has been suggested. In the small intestine of humans and rabbits the existence of a dual blood supply of the villus has meanwhile been established. It consists of pericryptal capillaries for the lower portion of the villus (tuft pattern) and a direct arterial supply up to the villus tip (fountain pattern). The colonic microvasculature closely resembles that of the stomach. In the pancreas the insulo-acinar portal system is physiologically significant in that it connects the venules draining the islets with the acini. Venous sphincters in the vascular system of the exocrine pancreas of the rat are of particular functional importance. The hepatic sinusoids are supplied both by the hepatic artery and the branches of the portal vein. The peribiliary plexus is supplied by the afferent vessels of the hepatic artery, the efferent vessels drain the plexus either into the sinusoids or into the lobular vein.
Aharinejad, S.; Lametschwandtner, A.; Franz, P.; and Firbas, W.
"The Vascularization of the Digestive Tract Studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy with Special Emphasis on the Teeth, Esophagus, Stomach, Small and Large Intestine, Pancreas, and Liver,"
Scanning Microscopy: Vol. 5
, Article 24.
Available at: https://digitalcommons.usu.edu/microscopy/vol5/iss3/24