The current status of biological Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) investigations and the importance of using a well-characterized substrate are discussed. The findings of over two years of experiments and over 1,000 images obtained on gold substrates prepared by a variety of different methods are statistically summarized and compared to a very flat reference substrate, highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG). In an effort to begin to corroborate STM results with those obtained from other more established techniques, the results of Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) and Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA) of biomolecular STM samples are presented.
Clemmer, Carol R. and Beebe, Thomas P. Jr.
"A Review of Graphite and Gold Surface Studies for Use as Substrates in Biological Scanning Tunneling Microscopy Studies,"
Scanning Microscopy: Vol. 6
, Article 2.
Available at: https://digitalcommons.usu.edu/microscopy/vol6/iss2/2