Minimum Sodium Nitrite Levels for Pinking of Various Cooked Meats as Related to Use of Direct or iIdirect-Dried Soy Isolates in Poultry Rolls
The relationship between sodium nitrite level and pinking was investigated in cooked meats, as measured by panel color score, acetone extraction of NO-hemochrome, and instrumental redness values. Beef was less susceptible than poultry breast meat to nitrite-induced pinking. Minimum sodium nitrite level for pinking was 14, 4, 2, and 1 ppm for beef round, pork shoulder, turkey breast, and chicken breast, respectively. By regression analysis, minimum ppm nitrite for pinking=0.092 (ppm total pigment)+0.53 (R2=0.99). High levels of nitrate (>250 ppm as sodium nitrate) and nitrite (>45 ppm as sodium nitrite) were found in direct-dried (DD) soy isolates. Chicken breast rolls formulated with >2% DD soy were pink, but control rolls with 156 ppm sodium nitrate were not pink. Thus, it was concluded that nitrite was the primary pinking agent in DD soy. Indirect-dried (ID) soy isolates contained <11 ppm sodium nitrite, which was insufficient for pinking in poultry rolls.
Heaton, K. M., Cornforth, D. P., Moiseev, I. V., Egbert, W. R. and Carpenter, C. E. 2000. Minimum sodium nitrite levels for pinking of various cooked meats as related to use of direct or indirect-dried soy isolates in poultry rolls. Meat Sci. 55:321-329.