Holography uses the interference of light waves to store information about an object, which can then be seen from different angles to create a partial 3D view. A simple experiment can be done using a laser diode, photographic plate, and a set of dice to create a holographic image. The holographic film is thin and can only hold a single image. Reflection holography can create a 3D diffraction pattern and allows more information to be packed into a single medium. Computer generated holograms can be designed to create holograms without a real object to be used in augmented reality. High resolution holograms can be created by nanofabrication. Metasurfaces are sub-wavelength patterns generated by computers on a surface to create vortex beams for optical communication and other applications.
Howell, Scott, "Metasurfaces for Holography" (2023). Physics Capstone Projects. Paper 104.