Physical Review Letters
The photoemission signal from the first atomic layer of W(110) is used to assess the nature of the interaction between the surface atoms of the metal substrate and the adsorbates Na, K, and Cs for coverages up to 1 atomic layer. Our results indicate that there is little or no charge transfer from the alkali metal to the W surface, even in the limit of low coverage. The satellite structure of the photoemission lines of the outermost p shell of the alkali metals confirms this conclusion. While contrary to the conventional picture of alkali-metal-charge donation, these findings fully support recent theoretical calculations.
"Alkali Metal Adsorbates on W(110): Ionic, Covalent, or Metallic?," D. M. Riffe, G. K. Wertheim, and P. H. Citrin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 571 (1990).