Physical Review B
Photoemission data from (110) films of Li, Na, and Rb, in which the signal from the first atomic layer is well resolved, show that the core-hole-screening singularity index is ∼40% larger at the surface than in the bulk for all three metals. This result, which is indicative of the more atomiclike character of metal surface atoms, in general, is particularly large for the alkali metals because their conduction-electron screening is mainly s-like. In addition to quantifying the difference in screening at the surface, the data provide bulk singularity indices of 0.22, 0.16, and 0.14 for Li, Na, and Rb, respectively. These new values are in better agreement with theory and with the threshold exponents than earlier values derived from incompletely bulklike x-ray photoemission data.
"Electron Mean-Free Paths in the Alkali Metals," G. K. Wertheim, D. M. Riffe, N. V. Smith, and P. H. Citrin, Phys. Rev. B 46, 1955 (1992).