Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics
Blackwell Publishing Ltd
We have performed an experiment to compare as directly as realizable the ionization production rate by HF radio wave energy versus by solar EUV. We take advantage of the commonality that ionization production by both ground-based high-power HF radio waves and by solar EUV is driven by primary and secondary suprathermal electrons near and above ~20 eV. Incoherent scatter radar (ISR)plasma-line amplitudes are used as a measure of suprathermal electron ﬂuxes for ISR wavelengths near those for 430 MHz and are indeed a clean measure of such for those ﬂuxes sufficiently weak to have negligible self-damping. We present data from an HF heating experiment on November 2015 at Arecibo,which even more directly conﬁrm the only prior midlatitude estimate, of order 10% efficiently for conversion of HF energy to ionospheric ionization. We note the theoretical maximum possible is ~1/3, while ~1% or less reduces the question to near practical irrelevance. Our measurements explicitly conﬁrm the prediction that radio-frequency production of artificial ionospheres can be practicable, even at midlatitudes. Furthermore,that this midlatitude efficiency is comparable to efficiencies measured at high latitudes (which include enhancements unique to high latitudes including magnetic zenith effect, gyro frequency multiples, and double resonances) requires reexamination of current theoretical thinking about soft-electron acceleration processes in weakly magnetized plasmas. The implications are that electron acceleration by any of a variety of processes may be a fundamental underpinning to energy redistribution in space plasmas.
Carlson, H.C., Djuth, F.T., Zhang, L.D. Creating space plasma from the ground (2017) Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, . Article in Press.