The 2D dielectric phases and phase transitions of adsorbed dipolar molecules are modeled using a dilute spin-one Ising model. This model is studied in the Blume–Emery–Griffiths formalism, using a mean-field approximation, where the interaction parameters are uniquely determined from the system interaction energies using an averaging procedure. The model is applied to four monhalogenated methane species physisorbed on MgO(1 0 0) and NaCl(1 0 0) surfaces using previous experimental and theoretical studies to estimate the interaction energy parameters. We find that temperature- and coverage-dependent antiferroelectric to ferroelectric, coverage-dependent ferroelectric up to ferroelectric down, reentrant ferroelectric to ferrielectric, and order-disorder dipole phase transitions can occur. Phase diagrams based on this model are presented.
T.E. Burns, JR Dennison and Jason Kite, “Extended BEG Model of Monhalogenated Methanes Physisorbed on IonicCrystals,” Surface Science, 554, 211-221 (2004).