Journal of Economic Entomology
Pithitis smaragdula (F.) is a bright green, small carpenter bee which is widespread in the oriental region and is known to pollinate economically important plants, especially legumes and cucurbits. About 300 bees imported from Ludhiana, India, were released 10 April 1969, at Davis, California. Subsequent collecting during the 1st season confirmed that one or more generations of the bees had been reared and that Trifolium repens L. was visited for pollen. Although the overwintering bees under observation died from unknown causes, and no living bees were found in 1970, it is possible that the bees survived elsewhere. Ecological factors believed to be important in the establishment of the colony were: few natural enemies, low competition for food, high competition for nesting sites, and a cooler, drier climate than the native habitat. Future releases are planned for warmer areas in the State.
Daly, Howell V.; Bohart, George E.; and Thorp, Robbin W., "Introduction of Small Carpenter Bees into California for Pollination 1. Release of Pithitis smaragdula" (1971). All PIRU Publications. Paper 792.