Weather and Forecasting
American Meteorological Society
In the U.S. northern plains, summer progressive convective storms that occur in weakly forced environ- ments are often coupled with short-wave perturbations that are embedded in the midlevel northwesterly flow. These midtropospheric perturbations (MPs) are capable of inducing propagating convection that contributes to a majority of the rainfall over the northern plains during July and August. There is a possibility that the difficulties of numerical weather prediction models in forecasting summer convective rainfall over the northern plains are partly attributed to their deficiency in forecasting MPs. The present study tests this possibility through examining operational forecasts by the North American Mesoscale (NAM) model during the summers of 2005 and 2006. Forecasted MPs exhibit slower propagation speeds and weaker relative vorticity than the observations leading to systematic position errors. Underpredicted vorticity magnitudes weaken horizontal vorticity ad- vection that influences the vorticity tendency throughout the MP life cycle and, in turn, slows the propagation speed of MPs. Moreover, biases of weak ambient flow speed and vortex stretching contribute to the mag- nitude and propagation speed errors of MPs. Skill scores of precipitation forecasts associated with MPs are low, but can be considerably improved after removing the MP position error that displaces the rainfall pat- tern. The NAM also tends to underpredict precipitation amounts. A modified water vapor budget analysis reveals that the NAM insufficiently generates atmospheric humidity over the central United States. The shortage of moisture in the forecast reduces the water vapor flux convergence that is part of the precipitation process. The precipitation bias may feed back to affect the MP growththrough the bias in heating, thus further slowing the perturbation.
Wang, S.-Y., T.-C. Chen, and S. E. Taylor, 2009: Evaluations of NAM forecasts on midtropospheric perturbation-induced convective storms over the U.S. northern plains. Wea. Forecasting, 24, 1309–1333.