Hedgerows use more water, but increase efficiency, profit in young walnuts
University of California, Los Angeles
Total water use was 18.8% greater for hedgerow plantings of walnut trees than for conventionally spaced trees during years 2 through 7 of this study. Cumulative yield-and revenue-water use efficiencies were much greater with the hedgerows through year 5, but differences narrowed there-after. The hedgerows had greater total yield, but lower crop value due to smaller nuts. Although individual nut weight was strongly correlated with nut load, the relationship between nut weight and nut density was independent of tree spacing. Total gross and net hedgerow revenues were greater.
Goldhamer, D. A., R. H. Beede, G. S. Sibbett, R. Kjelgren, R. C. Phene, and D E. Ramos. 1995. Hedgerows use more water, but increase efficiency, profit in young walnuts. California Agricult. 49:24-28.