Atmospheric Science Letters
The 2013–2014 winter in North America brought intense drought in the West and severe cold in the East. The circulation anomalies were characterized as a dipole: an amplified upper-level ridge over the West Coast and a deepened trough over the central-eastern United States. A previous study using a single model has linked the dipole to the El Niño precursor and found that this link has strengthened in recent years. Here, 17 models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 are used to examine the dipole activity. Most models capture the dipole and its association with El Niño precursor and project this association to strengthen.
Wang, Shih-Yu (Simon); Huang, Wan-Ru; and Yoon, Jin-Ho, "The North American Winter 'Dipole' and Extremes Activity: A CMIP5 Assessment" (2015). Plants, Soils, and Climate Faculty Publications. Paper 742.