Document Type


Journal/Book Title/Conference

Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology




American Meteorological Society

Publication Date


First Page


Last Page



In this study, a gale event that occurred on the lee side of a long narrow mountain was investigated, together with the associated mountain flows, using a realistic-case large-eddy simulation (LES) that is based on the Weather Research and Forecasting Model. The mountain is located on the southeastern Tibetan Plateau, where approximately 58 gales occur annually, mostly in the afternoons during the winter season. Benefitting from realistic topography and high horizontal resolution as fine as 111 m, the LES can replicate features similar to the wind fields observed during the gale period. Investigation of the early morning wind structure over the mountain revealed that weak inflows were blocked, reversed, and divided in the upstream area and that some weak lee waves, rotors, and two clear lee vortices were evident downstream. As the upstream wind accelerated and the boundary layer developed during the daytime, the lee waves became amplified with severe downslope wind and rotors. The interaction and coherent structure of the downslope wind, rotor, and vortices were investigated to show the severe wind distribution. The mountain drags associated with blocking and amplified lee waves are displayed to show the potential impact on the large-scale model. The linear lee-wave theory was adopted to explain the wave evolution during this event together with a discussion of the uncertainty around low-level nonlinear processes.


© Copyright 12/20/2019 AMS