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Nonhost disease resistance is the most common type of plant defense mechanism against potential pathogens. In this study, the metabolic enzyme formate dehydrogenase (FDH1) was identified to be involved in nonhost disease resistance in Nicotiana benthamiana and Arabidopsis thaliana. In Arabidopsis, AtFDH1 was highly upregulated in response to both host and nonhost bacterial pathogens. Arabidopsis Atfdh1 mutants were compromised in nonhost resistance, basal resistance, and gene-for-gene resistance. The expression patterns of salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) marker genes after pathogen infections in Atfdh1 mutant indicated that SA is most likely involved in the FDH1-mediated plant defense response to both host and nonhost bacterial pathogens. Previous studies reported that FDH1 localizes to only mitochondria, or both mitochondria and chloroplasts. Our results showed that the AtFDH1 localized to mitochondria and the amount of FDH1 localized to mitochondria increased upon infection with host or nonhost pathogens. Interestingly, the subcellular localization of FDH1 was observed in both mitochondria and chloroplasts after infection with a nonhost pathogen in Arabidopsis. We speculate that FDH1 plays a role in cellular signaling networks between mitochondria and chloroplasts to produce coordinated defense responses such as SA-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and hypersensitive response (HR)-induced cell death against nonhost bacterial pathogens.
Lee, S.; Vemanna, R.S.; Oh, S.; Rojas, C.M.; Oh, Y.; Kaundal, A.; Kwon, T.; Lee, H.; Muthappa, S.; Mysore, K.S. (2020) Formate Dehydrogenase (FDH1) Localizes to Both Mitochondria and Chloroplast to Play a Role in Host and Nonhost Disease Resistance. Preprints 2020, 2020070272 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202007.0272.v1).