Document Type


Journal/Book Title/Conference

Cognitive Behaviour Therapy

Author ORCID Identifier

Korena S. Klimczak

Guadalupe G. San Miguel

Miriam N. Mukasa

Michael P. Twohig

Michael E. Levin



Publication Date


Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.


Online Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) interventions use websites and smartphone apps to deliver ACT exercises and skills. The present meta-analysis provides a comprehensive review of online ACT self-help interventions, characterizing the programs that have been studied (e.g. platform, length, content) and analyzing their efficacy. A transdiagnostic approach was taken, including studies that addressed a range of targeted problems and populations. Multi-level meta-analyses were used to nest multiple measures of a single construct within their respective studies. A total of 53 randomized controlled trials were included (n = 10,730). Online ACT produced significantly greater outcomes than waitlist controls at post-treatment for anxiety, depression, quality of life, psychological flexibility, and all assessed outcomes (i.e. omnibus effect), which were generally maintained at follow-up. However, only psychological flexibility and all assessed outcomes at post-treatment were found to be significantly greater for online ACT when compared to active controls, with no significant follow-up effects. Overall, these results further clarify that ACT can be effectively delivered in an online format to target a wide range of mental health concerns, although it is less clear if and when online ACT is more efficacious than other online interventions.

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