Title of Oral/Poster Presentation

Modeling the Effects of Space Radiation and Microgravity on Muscle Cells

Class

Article

College

College of Engineering

Faculty Mentor

Elizabeth Vargis

Presentation Type

Oral Presentation

Abstract

Introduction: As longer space missions become more desirable to public and private institutions, the physiological impact on astronauts must be more fully considered. One of the primary concerns for those spending time in low gravity and high radiation environments is muscular atrophy. A major cause of atrophy is oxidative stress which is amplified by increased levels of ionizing radiation during spaceflight. Additionally, high levels of radiation can damage DNA, increasing the risk of cancer and cardiovascular disease. Utah State University's Space Environment Test Facility was used to irradiate C2C12 myoblasts and CRL-1999 aortic endothelial cells with a dosage mimicking that on the International Space Station and a 3-year and 10-year deep space mission. Cell changes due to increased levels of radiation were characterized with fluorescent imaging for H2AX, a marker of double stranded DNA damage, and Trypan blue viability staining. Materials and Methods: Skeletal cells were cultured in a custom rotary cell culture system (RCCS) to simulate microgravity. Controls were grown in standard tissue culture flasks and well plates. Cells were maintained using high glucose DMEM nutrient medium with 10% FBS for four days then high glucose DMEM with 2% FBS to induce differentiation. Cells were exposed to radiation levels between 0.5 and 4.0 Gy in USU's Space Survivability Test Chamber to model the radiation dosage seen on a deep space mission. Immediately after exposure, cells were analyzed for viability and morphology damage. Results and Discussion: Cell viability decreased substantially with increased accumulated radiation dose. The cell morphology of irradiated cell samples was different from the control sample in that they did not respect cell boundaries and exhibited reduced nucleation. Aortic vascular cells had a significantly lower tolerance to radiation exposure than skeletal cells and did not reestablish growth over exposed flask area following irradiation.

Location

Room 204

Start Date

4-12-2018 12:00 PM

End Date

4-12-2018 1:15 PM

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Apr 12th, 12:00 PM Apr 12th, 1:15 PM

Modeling the Effects of Space Radiation and Microgravity on Muscle Cells

Room 204

Introduction: As longer space missions become more desirable to public and private institutions, the physiological impact on astronauts must be more fully considered. One of the primary concerns for those spending time in low gravity and high radiation environments is muscular atrophy. A major cause of atrophy is oxidative stress which is amplified by increased levels of ionizing radiation during spaceflight. Additionally, high levels of radiation can damage DNA, increasing the risk of cancer and cardiovascular disease. Utah State University's Space Environment Test Facility was used to irradiate C2C12 myoblasts and CRL-1999 aortic endothelial cells with a dosage mimicking that on the International Space Station and a 3-year and 10-year deep space mission. Cell changes due to increased levels of radiation were characterized with fluorescent imaging for H2AX, a marker of double stranded DNA damage, and Trypan blue viability staining. Materials and Methods: Skeletal cells were cultured in a custom rotary cell culture system (RCCS) to simulate microgravity. Controls were grown in standard tissue culture flasks and well plates. Cells were maintained using high glucose DMEM nutrient medium with 10% FBS for four days then high glucose DMEM with 2% FBS to induce differentiation. Cells were exposed to radiation levels between 0.5 and 4.0 Gy in USU's Space Survivability Test Chamber to model the radiation dosage seen on a deep space mission. Immediately after exposure, cells were analyzed for viability and morphology damage. Results and Discussion: Cell viability decreased substantially with increased accumulated radiation dose. The cell morphology of irradiated cell samples was different from the control sample in that they did not respect cell boundaries and exhibited reduced nucleation. Aortic vascular cells had a significantly lower tolerance to radiation exposure than skeletal cells and did not reestablish growth over exposed flask area following irradiation.