Labor migration and gendered agricultural relations: The feminization of agriculture in the ejidal sector of Calakmul, Mexico
Journal of Agrarian Change
We examine the nature of the ‘feminization of agriculture’ in the semi-subsistence, peasant production sector of southeastern Mexico, as associated with male labour out-migration. Presenting findings from empirical work with smallholder producers, we discuss the impact of men's migration to the United States on women's participation in agriculture and gendered relations of agricultural production. In 2007, we conducted a survey of 155 semi-subsistence, smallholder households in six ejidos. This survey was supplemented by ethnographic research in a single ejido. Our findings demonstrate the need to distinguish between farm labour and management in this sector, and the potentially significant (but focused) changes in the local relations of agricultural production wrought by gendered patterns of labour migration – specifically in tenure, land-use decision-making and the management of hired labour.
Claudia Radel, Birgit Schmook, Jamie McEvoy†, Crisol Mendez and Peggy Petrzelka. 2012. “Labor migration and gendered agricultural relations: The feminization of agriculture in the ejidal sector of Calakmul, Mexico.” Journal of Agrarian Change. Vol. 12:98-119.