Western Aspen Alliance
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Wolf-elk-aspen interactions: Trophic cascade or trickle?
As one of the world’s first National Parks, Yellowstone is renowned for a dynamic landscape that is home to many charismatic species. As one of the few deciduous trees in the Park, aspen is a valuable member of the ecosystem. A century of decline is mostly attributed to elk herbivory of aspen recruitment, while climatic factors are often regarded as unimportant.
Western Aspen Alliance, "Tremblings, May 2022" (2022). Tremblings. Paper 53.