Peter I. Macreadie, Deakin University
Andrea Anton, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology
John A. Raven, University of Dundee
Nicola Beaumont, Plymouth Marine Laboratory
Rod M. Connolly, Griffith University
Daniel A. Friess, National University of Singapore
Jeffrey J. Kelleway, University of Wollongong
Hilary Kennedy, Bangor University
Tomohiro Kuwae, Coastal and Estuarine Environment Research Group
Paul S. Lavery, Edith Cowan University
Catherine E. Lovelock, University of Queensland
Dan A. Smale, Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom
Eugenia T. Apostolaki, Hellenic Centre for Marine Research
Trisha Brooke Atwood, Utah State UniversityFollow
Jeff Baldock, CSIRO Agriculture and Food
Thomas S. Bianchi, University of Florida
Gail L. Chmura, McGill University
Bradley D. Eyre, Southern Cross University
James W. Fourqurean, University of Western Australia
Jason M. Hall-Spencer, University of Plymouth
Mark Huxham, Edinburgh Napier University
Iris E. Hendriks, Institut Mediterrani d'Estudis Avançats
Dorte Krause-Jensen, Aarhus University
Dan Laffoley, World Commission on Protected Areas
Tiziana Luisetti, Centre for Environment, Fisheries, and Aquaculture Science
Núria Marbà, Institut Mediterrani d'Estudis Avançats
Pere Masque, Edith Cowan University
Karen J. McGlathery, University of Virginia
J. Patrick Megonigal, Smithsonian Environmental Research Center
Daniel Murdiyarso, Bogor Agricultural University
Bayden D. Russell, University of Hong Kong
Rui Santos, University of Algarve
Oscar Serrano, Edith Cowan University
Brian R. Silliman, Duke University
Kenta Watanabe, Coastal and Estuarine Environment Research Group
Carlos M. Duarte, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology

Document Type


Journal/Book Title/Conference

Nature Communications




Nature Publishing Group

Publication Date



Blue Carbon, Climate Change, Carbon accumulation, ecosystems

First Page


Last Page


Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.


The term Blue Carbon (BC) was first coined a decade ago to describe the disproportionately large contribution of coastal vegetated ecosystems to global carbon sequestration. The role of BC in climate change mitigation and adaptation has now reached international prominence. To help prioritise future research, we assembled leading experts in the field to agree upon the top-ten pending questions in BC science. Understanding how climate change affects carbon accumulation in mature BC ecosystems and during their restoration was a high priority. Controversial questions included the role of carbonate and macroalgae in BC cycling, and the degree to which greenhouse gases are released following disturbance of BC ecosystems. Scientists seek improved precision of the extent of BC ecosystems; techniques to determine BC provenance; understanding of the factors that influence sequestration in BC ecosystems, with the corresponding value of BC; and the management actions that are effective in enhancing this value. Overall this overview provides a comprehensive road map for the coming decades on future research in BC science.