Water Resources Research
Fractional transport rates, bed surface texture, and bed configuration were measured after a mixed size sediment had reached an equilibrium transport state for seven different flow strengths in a recirculating laboratory flume. Fractional transport rates were also measured at the beginning of each run when the bed was well mixed and planar. The start-up observations allow us to describe the variation of fractional transport rates with bed shear stress for a constant bed surface texture and bed configuration. The start-up and equilibrium observations together allow, for the first time, an unambiguous description of the mutual adjustment among the transport, the bed configuration, and the bed surface, as the transport system moves toward equilibrium. We find that a substantial interaction exists among the transport, bed surface, and bed configuration. Bed forms and a coarse surface layer coexist over a range of bed shear stress. Under some flow conditions the size and shape of the bed forms are controlled by the presence of the coarse surface layer. At higher flows the coarse surface layer is eliminated by scour in the lee of the bed forms. If the bed surface is defined as that over which the bed forms move, a coherent relation between the bed surface texture and the transport grain size distribution may be defined. At equilibrium the transport rates of all fractions were not equally mobile, defined as identical transport and bed grain size distributions, although equal mobility was approached for runs in which the bed shear stress was more than twice that for initial motion of the mixture. Under some flow conditions the transport was observed to adjust away from equal mobility as the bed adjusted from a well-mixed start-up condition to an equilibrium state. Development of a partial static armor, wherein some individual grains become essentially immobile even though other grains in the same fraction remain in transport, is suggested to explain these adjustments between the transport and bed surface grain size distributions. Constraints on equilibrium mixed size sediment transport are defined. The special conditions for which equal mobility must hold and the relevance to natural conditions of flume results and the equal mobility concept are discussed.
Wilcock, P.R. and Southard, J.B., 1989. Bed-load transport of mixed-size sediment: fractional transport rates, bed forms, and the development of a coarse bed-surface layer. Water Resources Research, 25(7):1629-1641.