Habitat relationships of subadult humpback chub in the Colorado River through Grand Canyon: spatial variability and implications of flow regulation
Regulated Rivers Research and Management
We examined subadult humpback chub densities along 24 kms of the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon to: (1) identify geomorphic conditions in the study area; (2) determine associations between subadult humpback chub (<200 mm TL) habitat use and geomorphic differences; and (3) determine how discharge, during base flow conditions, was related to subadult humpback chub habitat conditions. Habitat was categorized at two nested spatial scales: geomorphic reach and shoreline type. Within reaches, shoreline types were categorized according to geomorphology. We measured water depth, velocity and cover attributes along all shoreline types over a range of discharges to determine if habitat quality of reaches and shoreline types varied with discharge. Reaches 1 and 3 had narrow, deep corridors, whereas Reach 2 was a wide, shallow reach. Among shoreline types, depth, velocity and cover varied; however, differences were not consistent between reaches. Fish densities also varied among shoreline types and reaches. Vegetation, talus and debris fan shorelines had the highest densities of subadult humpback chub in a pattern similar to that of cover. In addition, subadult humpback chub presence was associated with a high frequency of cover regardless of shoreline designation. However, these relationships explained little of the overall variation in subadult densities. Lack of a strong association between fish density and geomorphology may be partially due to effects of discharge on habitat quality. The overall trend among shorelines (without regard to type) showed that cover decreased with increasing discharge, whereas depth and velocity increased. However, no consistent pattern between discharge and depth, velocity and cover among individual shoreline types was evident. Vegetated shorelines, consisting mainly of non-native tamarisk (Tamarix chinensis), had nearly twice the fish densities of talus and debris fan. Reasons are discussed as to why subadult humpback chub occupy naturalized habitat like vegetated shorelines in greater densities than natural habitats. The relationships observed in this study have important implications for humpback chub recovery and management of the Colorado River through Grand Canyon. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Converse, Y.K., C.P. Hawkins, and R.A. Valdez. 1998. Habitat relationships of subadult humpback chub in the Colorado River through Grand Canyon: spatial variability and impliations of flow regulation. Regulated Rivers Research and Management 14:267-284