Range Expansion of White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginanus) Into Urban and Agricultural Areas of Utah
Great Basin Naturalist
Numbers of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in the United States have increased to an unprecedented level over the past 50-60 yr (McCabe and McCabe 1984, Curtis and Richmond 1992, Harlow and Guynn 1994). During this time range expansion by white-tailed deer had occured in portions of the western United States, regions dominated historically by mule deer (O. hemionus; Martinka 1968, Baker 1984, Wiggers and Beasom 1986, Mackie 1995). Because white-tailed deer adapt readily to man-altered environments, range expansion has been linked with land-use changes brought about by humans (Baker 1984, Dusek et al. 1989, Wood et al. 1994). Accordingly, range expansion into the West by white-tailed deer has been most conspicuous in agricultural (Kufeld and Bowden 1995) and urban (Vogel 1989) environments, where white-tailed deer may now outnumber mule deer.
McClure, M. F., J. A. Bissonette, M. R. Conover, and D. D. Austin. 1997. Range expansion of whitetailed deer (Odocoileus virginanus) into urban and agricultural areas of Utah. Great Basin Naturalist 57(32):278-280.