Disposition of fluid from Livestock Protection Collars following coyote attacks on collared goats
International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation
We estimated the amount of fluid from Livestock Protection Collars (LPCs) that was ingested by coyotes during attacks on domestic goats (Capra hircus). The minimum dose coyotes received from both small and large LPCs was , although the average amount of fluid ingested by coyotes was 1.0 and for the small and large LPCs, respectively. Secondarily, we also determined (1) that once an LPC bladder was punctured, 85–90% of the fluid was dispensed, and (2) the amount of LPC fluid retained on the skin and wool of the animal attacked, averaged 7.5 and for small and large LPCs, respectively (range=3.9–. On average, 56% of the LPC fluid dispensed during a coyote attack was not accounted for in these trials. Suggestions for enhancing the portion of LPC fluid ingested, and thereby reducing environmental risks and contamination, are presented.
Knowlton, Frederick and Ebbert, Steven M., "Disposition of fluid from Livestock Protection Collars following coyote attacks on collared goats" (2002). Wildland Resources Faculty Publications. Paper 1587.