Influence of stand density on log quality of lodgepole pine
Can. J. For. Res.
We examined the relationship between stand density and stem quality characteristics for lodgepole pine (Pinuscontorta). The influence of initial stand density on end of rotation log quality was inferred by analyzing data from unmanaged, rotation-age stands. Quality characteristics examined included first log branch diameters, taper, wood density, and the proportion of sapwood. After differences in diameter at breast height were accounted for, only branch size was strongly influenced by stand density. A strong negative exponential relationship was found between the mean of the five largest branches per first log and number of trees per hectare.
Ballard, L.A. and J.N. Long. 1988. Influence of stand density on log quality of lodgepole pine. Can. J. For. Res. 18:911-916.