Publication No. 12
Jack H. Berryman Institute
Canada geese (Branta canadensis) started nesting in urban areas during the past 50 years. Today, most urban areas in the U. S. and Canada support breeding populations of these birds. Many of these resident goose populations are the result of a successful effort by fish and wildlife agencies to restore populations of giant Canada goose (Branta canadensis maxima), which is the largest of the 11 races of Canada geese. Their large body mass enables them to survive colder temperatures; thus, they tend to winter as far north as open water can be found.
Gosser, A. L., M. R. Conover, and T. A. Messmer. 1997. Managing problems caused by urban Canada geese. Jack H. Berryman Institute Publication No. 12. Utah State University, Logan.