The Journal of Wildlife Management
We studied the effects of coyote (Canis latrans) control for livestock protection on native ungulates during 2003 and 2004 on 7 sites in Utah and Colorado, USA, totaling over 1,900 km2. We found no relationships between coyote control variables and offspring/female deer ratios. However, control effort (no. of hr spent aerial gunning for coyotes) and success (no. of coyotes taken) were positively correlated with numbers of mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) observed per kilometer of transect. Our results suggest that coyote control for livestock protection may increase densities of mule deer and pronghorn in areas where it is conducted.
Harrington. J. L. and M. R. Conover. 2007. Does removing coyotes for livestock protection benefit free-ranging ungulates? Journal of Wildlife Management 71: 1555-1560.