Hugo Cayuela, University of LausanneFollow
Jean-François Lemaître, Université Lyon
Jean-Paul Léna, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Victor Ronget, Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle
Iñigo Martínez-Solano, Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales
Erin Muths, Fort Collins Science Center
David S. Pilliod, Forest and Rangeland Ecosystem Science Center
Benedikt R. Schmidt, University of Zurich
Gregorio Sánchez-Montes, Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales
Jorge Gutiérrez-Rodríguez, Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales
Graham Pyke, Kunming Institute of Botany
Kurt Grossenbacher, Naturhistorisches Museum
Omar Lenzi, University of Zurich
Jaime Bosch, Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales
Karen H. Beard, Utah State UniversityFollow
Lawrence L. Woolbright, Siena College
Brad A. Lambert, Colorado State University
David M. Green, McGill University
Nathalie Jreidini, McGill University
Justin M. Garwood, California Department of Fish and Wildlife
Robert N. Fisher, Western Ecological Research Center
Kathleen Matthews, Pacific Southwest Research Station
David Dudgeon, The University of Hong Kong
Anthony Lau, Lingnan University
Jeroen Speybroeck, Research Institute for Nature and Forest
Rebecca Homan, Denison University
Robert Jehle, University of Salford
Eyup Başkale, Pamukkale University
Emiliano Mori, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche
Jan W. Arntzen, Naturalis Biodiversity Center
Pierre Joly, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Rochelle M. Stiles, San Francisco Zoological Society
Michael J. Lannoo, Indiana University School of Medicine
John C. Maerz, University of Georgia
Winsor H. Lowe, University of Montana
Andrés Valenzuela-Sánchez, Universidad Austral de Chile
Ditte G. Christiansen, University of Zurich
Claudio Angelini, Salamandrina Sezzese Search Society
Jean-Marc Thirion, Pont-l’Abbé-d’Arnoult
Juha Merilä, The University of Hong Kong
Guarino R. Colli, Universidade de Brasília
Mariana M. Vasconcellos, The City University of New York
Taissa C.V. Boas, Universidade de Brasília
Ísis da C. Arantes, University of Mississippi
Pauline Levionnois, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Beth A. Reinke, Northeastern Illinois University
Cristina Vieira, Université Lyon 1
Gabriel A.B. Marais, Université Lyon 1
Jean-Michel Gaillard, Université Lyon 1
David A.W. Miller, The Pennsylvania State University

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 4.0 License


Sex‐related differences in mortality are widespread in the animal kingdom. Although studies have shown that sex determination systems might drive lifespan evolution, sex chromosome influence on aging rates have not been investigated so far, likely due to an apparent lack of demographic data from clades including both XY (with heterogametic males) and ZW (heterogametic females) systems. Taking advantage of a unique collection of capture–recapture datasets in amphibians, a vertebrate group where XY and ZW systems have repeatedly evolved over the past 200 million years, we examined whether sex heterogamy can predict sex differences in aging rates and lifespans. We showed that the strength and direction of sex differences in aging rates (and not lifespan) differ between XY and ZW systems. Sex‐specific variation in aging rates was moderate within each system, but aging rates tended to be consistently higher in the heterogametic sex. This led to small but detectable effects of sex chromosome system on sex differences in aging rates in our models. Although preliminary, our results suggest that exposed recessive deleterious mutations on the X/Z chromosome (the “unguarded X/Z effect”) or repeat‐rich Y/W chromosome (the “toxic Y/W effect”) could accelerate aging in the heterogametic sex in some vertebrate clades.