Antiviral Chemistry & Chemotherapy
International Medical Press
Alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), an acute phase protein in serum assayed by single radial immunodiffusion using a commercially available kit, was found to significantly increase in mice infected with influenza A and B viruses. Experiments were run to determine the rate of increase of serum AGP and its relation to other influenza disease parameters, including lung consolidation, development of lung virus titres, decline in arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2), histopathological changes in the lung, and death of the animal. Maximal AGP levels occurred by day 3 in the animals, at about the same time lung virus titres reached their peak and inflammatory effects were evident in the lung. Serum levels of AGP were then compared with other disease parameters in the evaluation of the anti-influenza A and B virus efficacy of oseltamivir and ribavirin in mice. Treatment was by oral gavage twice daily for 5 days, beginning 4 h before virus exposure using doses of 100, 10, and 1 mg/kg per day of oseltamivir and 75 mg/kg per day of ribavirin. Against the influenza A infection, significant inhibition of death, SaO2 decline, and lung consolidation was seen at all doses of each compound; day-6 AGP levels were reduced in a dose-responsive manner. Lung virus titres were lessened at this time, but to a significant degree only at the high dose of oseltamivir and by ribavirin. The influenza B virus infection, which appeared more severe than the influenza A infection, was also significantly inhibited by both compounds, but to a lesser extent. The serum AGP levels were again lessened by therapy with both compounds. The influence of challenge dose of influenza A virus on AGP level and on the antiviral activity of 20 mg/kg per day of oseltamivir, administered by oral gavage, was determined in mice. The AGP level was in proportion to the viral challenge dose; oseltamivir significantly inhibited AGP levels and all other disease parameters regardless of size of viral inoculum. These data indicate murine AGP levels to be markedly stimulated by infection with influenza A and B viruses, and the level of the protein to be an additional measure of antiviral efficacy.
Sidwell, R,W,, Wong, M,H,, Bailey, K,W,, Barnard, D,L,, Jackson, M,K,, and Smee, D.F. 2001. Utilization of alpha-1-acid glycoprotein levels in the serum as a parameter for in vivo assay of influenza virus inhibitors. Antivir Chem Chemother. 12: 359-365. PMID: 12018681