Journal of Veterinary Science and Technology
Herd-level prevalence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), causative agent of Johne’s disease (JD) and Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD) virus were estimated on dairy farms in Utah. Duplicate milks were collected at 3-4 day intervals on 5 dates from each bulk tank on participating farms. Samples were tested at separate laboratories for BVD (real-time, RT-PCR) and for JD/MAP (ELISA and qPCR). 151/209 (72%) eligible dairy farms participated. Farms detected positive were: 58 JD (38%) and 14 BVD (9%); 5 farms had both diseases. Follow up visited farms’ (n=22) means, medians: 778,420 milking cows; 20,052 lbs, 20,311 lbs 305d milk; 175,545/ml, 178,000/ml bulk milk SCC; stalls visibly soiled in rear one-third 37%, 32%, range 5% to 90%. Seventeen of 21 (81%) farms with JD had observed adult cows becoming thin while retaining appetite, 52% had seen adult cows contract diarrhea and subsequently die. Both BVD-positive farms had observed abortions. Free stalls housed milking cows on 91% of farms; dry lots housed dry cows on 55%. Nine farms (41%) had purchased animals within the past year: 27% pregnant heifers, 18% bulls, 9% calves, 14% cows; 9% had purchased only bulls. Whenever animals were last purchased, 14 farms (64%) had performed no disease testing or segregation; 8 farms (36%) utilized at least one biosecurity practice for replacements. Most common were 9-way vaccine including BVD on arrival (27%), 14% segregated replacements for any time, 11% tested for any diseases (none for JD). Fourteen (67%) farms with JD would identify known positive cows; none would segregate positives. Most producers (57%) allowed known JDpositive cows to calve again, farms with BVD were equivocal. No producers would have a separate calving area for JD or BVD-positive cows. Six farms (27%) fed calves only individual cow colostrum and pasteurized milk. All 22 farms vaccinated against BVD.
Wilson DJ, Rood KA, Whitehouse C, Bunnell J, Goodell GM, Byrem TM: Dairy herd - level prevalence of Johne's disease and BVD in the Intermountain West of the U.S.A. and farm management practices and characteristics for test-positive herds. J Veterinary Sci Technol 6:4:1-7, 2015. http://omicsonline.org/veterinary-science-technology.php (search for ÒBVDÓ)