Evaluation of Methods of Resynchronization for Insemination in Cows of Unknown Pregnancy Status
The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of 3 methods of resynchronization of estrus and ovulation for lactating dairy cows of unknown pregnancy status on conception rate and time to pregnancy. Holstein cows (n = 495) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: 1) control (n = 167), resynchronization with a timed AI protocol upon diagnosis of nonpregnancy on d 31 after preenrollment AI (PAI); 2) CIDR-G (n = 159), use of an intravaginal progesterone insert from d 14 to 21 after AI, with AI at estrus from d 21 to 24 and initiation of a timed AI protocol on d 24 after AI in cows not reinseminated; 3) CIDR-G + ECP (n = 169), the same treatment as CIDR-G but with an injection of 1 mg of estradiol cypionate at the time of progesterone insert removal. Cows were continuously reenrolled in the same treatment until diagnosed as pregnant, which resulted in a total of 1,148 AI (495 PAI and 653 resynchronized AI; RAI). Blood was collected from 1,001 cows on d 14, 21, and 24 after each AI for analysis of progesterone, and ovaries were scanned on d 21, 24, and 31 after AI. The presence of an active corpus luteum was presumed based on progesterone ≥1 ng/mL. Pregnancy was diagnosed by ultrasonography on d 31 and 61 after AI. The presence of an active corpus luteum and the incidence of luteolysis were similar for all treatments from d 14 to 24; however, luteolysis increased in the CIDR-G + ECP treatment from d 21 to 24. Conception rates for the PAI and all AI were similar on d 31 and 61 after insemination. Conception rates at 31 and 61 d after the RAI were also similar among treatments. Overall pregnancy loss for the PAI, RAI, and all AI were similar for all treatments. The accuracy of estrous detection, based on progesterone concentration within 2 d of detection of estrus, was similar for all treatments for the RAI and averaged 95.3%. The estrus-detection rate (EDR) decreased for the CIDR-G and CIDR-G + ECP treatments from d 14 to 21, but increased from d 21 to 24 compared with control cows; however, the EDR was smaller for cows in the CIDR-G treatment during the entire resynchronization period compared with those in the CIDR-G + ECP and control groups. The reinsemination interval was reduced in cows receiving the CIDR-G + ECP treatment compared with control cows because of increased EDR after removal of the intravaginal insert; however, the interval from study enrollment to pregnancy was not different among treatments. These results indicate that the reproductive performance of dairy cows did not differ among the 3 resynchronization treatments evaluated.