Reproduction in Dairy Cows Following Progesterone Insert Presynchronization and Resynchronization Protocols
The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of an intravaginal insert containing progesterone (CIDR, controlled internal drug releasing) administered in presynchronization and resynchronization protocols on cyclicity, detection of estrus, pregnancy rate, and pregnancy loss to first AI; reinsemination patterns; and pregnancy rates to second postpartum AI before and after the time of first-service pregnancy diagnosis in dairy cows. Holstein cows (n = 1,052) were blocked by parity and BCS at 3 ± 3 d in milk (study d 0 = day of calving) and assigned randomly to 1 of 3 presynchronization treatments. During the presynchronization programs, all cows received 2 injections of PGF2α, on study d 35 and 49. Cows enrolled in the control presynchronization treatment received AI after detected estrus from study d 49 to 62. Cows enrolled in the CIDR estrus-detection (CED) presynchronization treatment received a CIDR insert from study d 42 to 49 and AI on detection of estrus from d 49 to 62. Cows enrolled in the CIDR timed AI (CTAI) presynchronization treatment received the same treatment as CED, but were subjected to timed AI on study d 72 after the Ovsynch (GnRH, 7 d PGF2α, 2 d GnRH, 24 h timed AI) protocol. The control and CED cows not inseminated by study d 62 were enrolled in the Ovsynch protocol on the same day and received timed AI on study d 72. After first AI, cows were assigned to no resynchronization (RCON) or resynchronization with a CIDR insert (RCIDR) between 14 and 21 d after AI. Blood samples collected on study d 35, 49, and 62 were analyzed for concentrations of progesterone and cows were classified as anestrous when progesterone was <1.0 ng/mL in the first 2 samples. On study d 62, anestrous cows with progesterone ≥ 1.0 ng/mL were classified as having resumed cyclicity. Pregnancy was diagnosed at 31 and 60 d after first AI and at 42 d after second AI. A greater proportion of anestrous cows in CED and CTAI became cyclic by d 62 postpartum than control cows. Resynchronization with the CIDR insert increased the pregnancy rate at 31 d after first AI in CED and CTAI, and at 60 d after AI in all cows because of reduced pregnancy loss. These results indicate that presynchronization with the CIDR insert increased induction of cyclicity in anestrous cows and that resynchronization with the CIDR insert did not affect the reinsemination rate but did reduce pregnancy loss and increased the pregnancy rate at 60 d after first AI.